John C Lantis 2nd 1 , Christopher Barrett 2 , Kara S Couch 3 , Suzie Ehmann 4 , Emily Greenstein 5 , Marta Ostler 6 , Anthony Tickner 7
Introduction: As the majority of diabetic foot ulcerations (DFUs) occur on the plantar foot, excessive pressure is a major contributing factor to delayed healing. The gold standard for offloading is the total contact cast (TCC); yet, TCC use is contraindicated in patients with ischemia. Lower extremity ischemia typically presents in the more severe end stages of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). As PAD exists on a severity spectrum from mild to severe, designation of a clear cutoff where TCC use is an absolute contraindication would assist those who treat DFUs on a daily basis.
Objective: The aim of this study is to determine if a potential cutoff value for PAD where TCC use would be an absolute contraindication could be ascertained from a retrospective case series and a systematic literature review of patients with PAD in which treatment included TCC use.
Materials and methods: A retrospective cases series and systematic review of patients with mild to moderate PAD treated with a TCC was performed. All reports of TCC use in patients with PAD and a neuropathic ulceration that included results of noninvasive vascular studies were included.
Results: Results suggested that TCC use is a viable treatment modality for pressure-related DFUs in patients with an ankle pressure ≥ 80 mm Hg, a toe pressure ≥ 74 mm Hg, an ankle-brachial index ≥ 0.55, or a toe-brachial index ≥ 0.55.
Conclusions: Vascular evaluation, individual risk/benefit analysis, close follow-up, and patient education are essential components of TCC use in these patients. Repeat vascular evaluation is recommended if the wound fails to progress towards resolution with TCC use.
Originally Published- PubMed.com, February 2018